Paintings of Republican Rome
The battle in the print is probably the battle of Zama (202 BC) in which Hannibal, chief commander of Carthaginian armies in the Second Punic War, was defeated by Scipio Africanus.
photography: copyright Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie
| Wassenburgh - 'The Continence of Scipio'|
Oil on canvas by Jan Abel van Wassenbergh, dated 1705. Jan Abel van Wassenberg was a painter of portraits and genre, born at Groningen in 1689, dying there in 1750. He was a pupil of Adriaen van der Werff, and Wassenberg's work shows the influence of that artist. His
| Bronze bust of Hannibal in baroque style; heavy black patina. Man with curly hair, wearing cuirass with Gorgon head in center, mounted on a turned marble base. Height 68.5 cm. |
Capitoline wall - Hannibal on a war elephantca. 1980-1997 Rome, Italy
A mural in the "Hall of Hannibal" in the Palazzo dei Conservatori of the Capitoline Museum in Rome.
© Massimo Listri/CORBIS
Wilson - Ponte Alpino built by HannibalRichard Wilson 1713-1782 British from Oppé Collection
Pencil on paper (Dy) support 287mm x 217mm on paper, unique
Purchased as part of the Oppé Collection with assistance from the National Lottery through the Heritage Lottery Fund 1996
Bonascone - The Wounded ScipioGiulio di Antonio Bonasone (engraver), Italian , 1498 - 1558
after Polidoro da Caravaggio, 16th century
Engraving 20.3 x 26.9 cm (image) inches
Achenbach Foundation for Graphic Arts
Giulio di Antonio Bonasone. Born in Bologna, dates of birth and death uncertain. A painter, engraver, and etcher. Prints dated between 1531 and 1574.
Batoni, Pompeo- The Continence of ScipioFrom the Renaissance onwards The Continence of Scipio was an extremely popular subject in European art. Batoni's canvas forms a pair with Thetis Takes Achilles from the Centaur Chiron, likewise commissioned by Catherine the Great and also in the Hermitage. The two works are similar both in composition and in colouring. Scipio wears a deep pink cloak - this is the colour of the victorious hero - as he returns the girl to her kneeling beloved, while the white dress of the prisoner symbolizes her innocence. There are various marvellously painted vases in the foreground: Batoni was a jeweller in his youth and he loved to make small, detailed, elegant still lifes through the introduction of extraneous items.
Oil on canvas. 226.5x297.5 cm Italy. Circa 1771/72
Source of Entry: Gatchina Palace Museum. 1926
The composition is based on a contrast between the powerful figure of the hero, calm and unshaking, and the tender captive, almost fainting at the horror of what she thinks lies before her. The painting was exhibited at the Royal Academy of Arts in 1789 and met with a mixed reaction. Some criticised the overloaded composition as a major defect, others noticed the beautiful colouring, "equal to the finest works of the Flemish School".
One of Van Dyck's most important "history paintings", it was probably commissioned in 1620-21 by George Villiers, Ist Duke of Buckingham and favourite of James I. Although it ostensibly represents a classical subject it is thought to be an allegory of the difficult circumstances surrounding the marriage of Buckingham to Lady Katherine Manners, and the figures holding hands are likely to be portraits of the couple. Like his master Rubens, Van Dyck had a keen interest in antiquity, and he invokes the world of ancient Carthage with the inclusion of a Roman frieze copied from a piece known to have been in the Earl of Arundel's celebrated collection of antiquities.
Triumph of Scipio - Gaspard de Cruyer
Sophonisba's death is a popular theme among Baroque painters of Italy and northern Europe.Sophonibe (Sophonisbe) was a Numidian princess (died 203 BC), daughter of Carthaginian commander Hasdrubal, engaged to Numidian king Masynissa. Later married his enemy Syphax to obtain peace with Carthago. After imprisonment of Syphax by Romans she became a wife of Masynissa, who gave her poison to save her from humiliation.
Photography: copyright Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie
Sophonisba was the daughter of a Carthaginian general at the time of the second Punic war. She married a prince of neighbouring Numidia, allied to Rome, and succeeded in alienating him from his Roman masters. But he was captures by another Numidian leader Masinissa, who in turn fell in love with Sophonisba, and likewise married her. To prevent the loss of a second ally from the same cause the Roman general Scipio demanded that she be surrendered and sent captive to Rome. Her husband, not daring to defy Scipio, sent her a cup of poison which she drank.
Paris, 1766 ; Paris, 1828. Admitted to the Academy, he was above all an exponent of history painting and portraits.
Regulus Sets Out for Carthage. Oil; 112 cm x 151 cm. Signed, dated: Pajou fils 1793 . Held hostage by the Carthaginians, the Roman consul Regulus had been given the chance to negotiate peace with Rome for Carthage in exchange for his freedom. Not only did Regulus advise Rome to continue the war, but, refusing to break his promise, he returned to Carthage where he was tortured and put to death. Paris, Musée du Louvre.
Penni - Battle of ZamaGiovanni Francesco Penni. Louvre Museum
| a 16th-century tapestry depicting the Battle of Zama.|
Patrimonio Nacional, Madrid, Spain.
Quintus Fabius Maximus before the senate of Carthage, Tiepolo, Giambattista.Oil on canvas. 387x224 cm Italy. Circa 1730 Source of Entry: First Branch of the State Hermitage Museum (former Museum of the Stieglitz School). 1934
Dionisio Dolfin, Patriarch of Aquileia, commissioned a series of ten paintings on themes from Roman history (five of which are now in the Hermitage) for his Venetian palace, known as the Ca' Dolfin. In this work, the artist chose the scene in which Rome declared war on Carthage (Livy, Roman History, II, 6). Rome sent an embassy to the Senate at Carthage under the leadership of Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus (273-203 BC), known as Cunctator (the delayer). The embassy was protesting the seizure by Carthage of a town allied to Rome. Since the senators refused to answer the protest, Quintus Fabius asked them what they would chose, war or peace? The senators chose war.
An excerpt from the Epitome of Roman history (II, 6) by Florus is to be seen at the top of the painting. It reads "When the Carthaginians refused to answer, the leader of the embassy Fabius: What is the delay? Here I bring you war and peace. Which do you choose?' In answer to their cry of ? War!' he replied: Thus you shall have war', shook out before the whole gathering a fold of his toga, and let it go, not without a shudder, as if indeed he carried war in that fold. Tiepolo sets the main hero with his back to the viewer, allowing us only to guess at the expression on his face. This device was used repeatedly in the series of paintings for the Ca' Dolfin, and creates an impression of heightened emotional tension.
Caius Marius amid the ruins of CarthageJohn Vanderlyn American , 1775 - 1852 , 1807 oil on canvas
Gouache, gold leaf, pen and ink, watercolour on parchment 28.7 x 20.2 cm
Pesellino - L'allegorie de Carthage(miniature)
Pesellino, Francesco di Stefan 1447